The Bulgarian Barrier Model

Vehicle crime in Bulgaria is mainly orchestrated by local criminal networks, distinct from the patterns in Western European countries. The Bulgarian barrier model deviates slightly from the standard model since stages like entering, staying, and using local infrastructure appear irrelevant. The barrier model approach aids in comprehending the modus operandi, enabling factors, and facilitators, laying the foundation for a comprehensive prevention strategy.

Click the “+” symbol for more information on each step. Explore the detailed insights in our report to learn more about the barrier model.

  1. Unsecured parking lots
  2. Parking lots of large retailers, malls, and outlets
  3. Low presence of police patrols during nighttime
  4. Well-developed street infrastructure
  5. Vulnerabilities of keyless technology
  1. Atypical driving during nighttime
  2. Nighttime activity in locked garages
  3. Possession of locksmith or jamming equipment
  4. Jamming of GPS or mobile phone signal in the neighbourhood vicinity
  1. Online traders
  2. Internet fora and channels on social media
  3. (Black-hat) hackers
  4. Unscrupulous locksmiths
  1. National Police
  2. Municipal authorities
  3. Private security companies
  4. Locksmith associations
  5. Car manufacturers and car dealers
  6. Insurance companies
  7. Local communities
  1. Increased and enhanced video surveillance
  2. Securing direct police access to private and public street CCTV footage
  3. Jamming detection equipment
  4. Increasing security of parking lots in at-risk residential areas
  5. Increased police patrolling
  6. Tailored training for private security guards at busy public parking lots
  7. Raising awareness of keyless car owners
  8. Regular exchange of information between police, car manufacturers, and car dealers
  9. Mandatory licensing of locksmiths
  10. New vehicle software design to facilitate the collection of digital forensic evidence
  11. Enhanced police capabilities for digital vehicle forensics
  12. Investigation and prosecution of vehicle crimes as cybercrime offences
  1. Easy access to inexpensive and anonymous storage areas and garages
  2. Cash payments
  3. Thriving grey economy
  1. Nighttime activity in garages, car-repair shops, used-car yards, or storage facilities
  2. Display of unjustified income
  3. GPS jammers
  1. Straw persons
  2. Landlords
  3. Car-repair shops (mechanics, ‘fitters’)
  1. GD National Police
  2. Landlords
  3. National Revenue Agency
  4. Local communities
  5. Communications Regulation Commission (CRC)
  6. Telecommunication companies
  1. Regular (unannounced) inspections of car-repair shops or used-car yards
  2. Administrative measures against undocumented renting
  3. Cooperation with CRC and telecoms to identify signal jamming
  1. Well-developed online trade
  2. Cheap and speedy postal services
  3. Big used cars market
  4. Proximity and ties to the Middle East, Georgia, Russia, and Ukraine
  5. Busy border checkpoints
  6. Police corruption
  1. Suspiciously low prices of spare parts or used vehicles
  2. Missing or not original documents
  3. Cash payments
  4. Cars or car parts from specific brands and models at border checkpoints
  5. Tampered or altered VIN stamps
  1. Classified ads platforms (such as Facebook Marketplace,, and
  2. Shipping/postal companies
  3. Used-car and auto salvage yard owners
  4. Document fraudsters
  5. Corrupt police officers
  1. GD National Police
  2. National Customs Agency (NCA)
  3. GD Border Police
  4. Directorate Internal Security at MoI
  5. Notaries
  6. Classified ad platforms and postal companies
  7. Used-car and auto salvage yard owners
  1. Mobile X-Ray scanning equipment for checking VIN stamps
  2. Electronic register of notarized power of attorney documents
  3. Anti-corruption measures targeting teams for a physical inspection of vehicles under registration
  4. Enhancing inter-institutional cooperation at Border Crossing Points (BCPs)
  5. Regulation of the auto salvage yards sector
  6. Enhancing Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures at classified ad platforms
  7. Increasing compliance with KYC procedures at postal companies
  1. Cash-intensive economy and massive grey sector
  2. Insufficient compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) requirements
  1. Display of unjustified income
  2. False invoices, mismatching records
  1. Accountants or accounting firms
  2. Real estate agencies
  1. National Revenue Agency (NRA)
  2. GDCOC (money laundering unit)
  3. State Agency National Security (FIU)
  4. Obliged reporting entities
  1. Parallel financial investigations
  2. Improving the effectiveness of asset tracing, seizing, and confiscation
  3. Risk assessment of suspicious transactions related to organized vehicle theft
  4. By strengthening compliance oversight over legally obliged reporting entities